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Altun, M., Hazar, M., & Hazar, Z., (2016). Investigation of the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of pre-school children. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(15), 8112-8119.

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Gaertner, B. M., Spinrad, T. L., & Eisenberg, N. (2008). Focused attention in toddlers: Measurement, stability, and relations to negative emotion and parenting. Infant and Child Development, 17(4), 339–363.

Godwin, K., Almeda, M., Seltman, H., Kai, S., Skerbetz, M., Baker, R., & Fisher, A. (2016). Off task behavior in elementary school children. Grantee Submission, Learning and Instruction, 44, 128-143.

Grabell, A., Huppert, T., Fishburn, F., Li, Y., Hlutkowsky, C., Jones, H., Wakschlag, L., & Perlman, S. (2019). Neural correlates of early deliberate emotion regulation: Young children’s responses to interpersonal scaffolding. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 40.

Granic, I., O’Hara, A., Pepler, D., & Lewis, M. D. (2007). A dynamic systems analysis of parent-child changes associated with successful “real-world” interventions for aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 845–857.

Gunderson, E. A., Sorhagen, N. S., Gripshover, S. J., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2018). Parent praise to toddlers predicts fourth grade academic achievement via children’s incremental mindsets. Developmental Psychology, 54(3), 397-409. doi:

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Hutton, J. S., Dudley, J., Horowitz-Kraus, T., DeWitt, T., & Holland, S. K. (2020). Associations between screen-based media use and brain white matter integrity in preschool-aged children. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(1), e193869.

Kaden, M. (2017, November 29). Patience is not simply the ability to wait. It’s how we behave while waiting.

Kemp, C., Lunkenheimer, E., Albrecht, E., & Chen, D. (2016). Can we fix this? Parent-child repair processes and preschoolers’ regulatory skills. Family Relations, 65(4), 576-590.

Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (2012). Child temperament moderates effects of parent—child mutuality on self-regulation: A relationship-based path for emotionally negative infants. Child Development, 83(4), 1275-1289.

Kim, S., & Miao, L. (2011). Dynamics of Emotional Responses and Emotion Regulation during Multi-Stage Waits.

Li, C., Cheng, G., Sha, T., Cheng, W., & Yan, Y. (2020). The relationships between screen use and health indicators among infants, toddlers, and preschoolers: A meta-analysis and systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7324- add end page.

Marion, M. (2003). Guidance of young children (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.

McClelland, M. M., Morrison, F. J., & Holmes, D. L. (2000). Children at risk for early academic problems: The role of learning-related social skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(3), 307-329.

McClelland, M. M., & Scalzo, C. (2006). 13 - social skills deficits. (pp. 313-335). Elsevier Inc.

Mcilroy, T. (2021). Simple activities to increase preschoolers’ attention span. Empowered Parents.

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Rymanowicz, K. (2015, March 30). The waiting game: Encouraging self-regulation in young children. Michigan State University Extension.

Scholastic Parents Staff. (2021). Explaining executive function.

Seefeldt, C., & Wasik, B. (2005). Early education: Three, four, and five year olds go to school (2nd ed). Prentice Hall.

Seligman, M. (1996). The optimistic child: proven program to safeguard children from depression & build lifelong resilience. Houghton Mifflin.

Sigman, A. (2012). Time for a view on screen time. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(11):935-42. 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302196

Southam-Gerow, M.A., & Kendall PC. (2002). Emotion regulation and understanding: implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(2):189-222. 10.1016/s0272-7358(01)00087-3

Stansbury, K., & Harris, M. L. (2000). Individual differences in stress reactions during a peer entry episode: Effects of age, temperament, approach behavior, and self-perceived peer competence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 76(1), 50-63.

Sweetser, P., Johnson, D., Ozdowska, A., & Wyeth, P. (2012). Active versus passive screen time for young children. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(4), 94–98.

Taylor, B., Gavin, W., Grimm, K., Passantino, D., & Davies. P. (2018). Modeling the interrelationships between brain activity and trait attention measures to predict individual differences in reaction times in children during a Go/No-Go task. Neuropsychologia, 109, 222-231.

Terada, Y. (2018, March 9). Research-tested benefits of breaks. Edutopia.

Williams, L. E., Huang, J. Y., & Bargh, J. A. (2009). The scaffolded mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39(7), 1257–1267.

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